• Nusrat Zareen
  • Muhammad Yunus Khan
  • Liaqat Ali Minhas


Background: The possible adverse effects of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) emitted from mobilephones present a major public concern today. Some studies indicate EMFs effects on genes, freeradical production, immunological and carcinogenic effects. On the other hand there are studieswhich do not support the hypothesis of any biological impacts of EMFs. This study was designed toobserve the effects of mobile phone induced EMFs on survival and general growth and developmentof chick embryo, investigating dose-response relationship if any. Methods: This was anexperimental study in which developing chick embryos were exposed to different doses of mobilephone induced EMFs. For this purpose a mobile phone was placed in the incubator in the centre offertilised eggs in silent ringing mode and was ‘rung’ upon from any other line or cell phone. Afterincubation for 10 or 15 days the eggs were opened and the developmental mile-stones of thesurviving embryos were compared with the non exposed subgroup. Results: EMFs exposuresignificantly decreased the survivability of the chick embryos. The lower doses of EMFs causedgrowth retardation. However, this effect of growth retardation reallocated to partial growthenhancement on increasing the dose of EMFs and shifted over to definite growth enhancement onfurther raising the dose. Conclusion: There is an adverse effect of EMFs exposure on embryosurvivability. Chick embryos developmental process is influenced by EMFs. However, these effectsare variable depending upon the dose of EMFs exposure.Keywords: EMFs, Chick embryo, Mobile phone


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