• Henna Azmat
  • Sumaiya Shahab
  • Ahson Ahmad
  • Shafaq Khadija
  • Javeria Firidi



Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity, the incidence of which has significantly increased in the last 10 years. In Pakistan, it is reported to be the most common cancer among men and the second most common in women. Cyclin D1 is a protein involved in cell cycle regulation from G1 phase to S phase. Down regulation of this molecule causes inhibition of cell cycle transition and may lead to carcinogenesis. We studied the expression of Cyclin D1 in biopsies of oral squamous cell carcinoma to evaluate the staining patterns in various grades and sites of the oral cavity. Cyclin D1 was expressed in 53.8% cases of OSCC and showed a significant association with tumour differentiation, with higher intensity staining seen in poorly differentiated cases of OSCC. Thus, Cyclin D1 can be regarded as a marker of malignant potential of OSCC and can help identify cases with poorer outcome.


Omar EA. The Outline of Prognosis and New Advances in Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC): Review of the Literature. J Oral Oncol 2013;2013(ii):1–13.

Manikandan M, Deva Magendhra Rao AK, Arunkumar G, Manickavasagam M, Rajkumar KS, Rajaraman R, et al. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: MicroRNA expression profiling and integrative analyses for elucidation of tumourigenesis mechanism. Mol Cancer 2016;15(1):28.

Chi AC, Day TA, Neville BW. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma-an update. CA Cancer J Clin 2015;65(5):401–21.

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015;136(5):E359–86.

Arya V, Singh S, Daniel MJ. Clinicopathological correlation of Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in oral precancer and cancer. J Oral Biol Craniofacial Res 2016;6(1):19–24.

Anwar N, Pervez S, Chundriger Q, Awan S, Moatter T, Ali TS. Oral cancer: Clinicopathological features and associated risk factors in a high risk population presenting to a major tertiary care center in Pakistan. PLoS One 2020;15:1–15.

Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Usman A, Pervez S, Kayani N, Bashir I, et al. Epidemiological review of head and neck cancers in Karachi. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2006;7(2):195–200.

Percy C, Van Holten V, Muir C, editors. World Health Organization. International classification of diseases for oncology. 2nd ed. Geneva, 2013; p.1–144.

Chung CH, Zhang Q, Kong CS, Harris J, Fertig EJ, Harari PM, et al. P16 Protein Expression and Human Papillomavirus Status As Prognostic Biomarkers of Nonoropharyngeal Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2014;32(35):3930–8.

Rivera C, Venegas B. Histological and molecular aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Lett 2014;8(1):7–11.

Sawazaki-Calone I, Rangel ALCA, Bueno AG, Morais CF, Nagai HM, Kunz RP, et al. The prognostic value of histopathological grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Oral Dis 2015;21(6):755–61.

Boxberg M, Jesinghaus M, Dorfner C, Mogler C, Drecoll E, Warth A, et al. Tumour budding activity and cell nest size determine patient outcome in oral squamous cell carcinoma: proposal for an adjusted grading system. Histopathology 2017;70(7):1124–37.

Patel SB, Manjunatha BS, Shah V, Soni N, Sutariya R. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p63 and cyclin D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017;43(5):324–30.

Carlos De Vicente J, Herrero-Zapatero A, Fresno MF, López-Arranz JS. Expression of cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: Clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Oral Oncol 2002;38(3):301–8.

Todd R, Hinds PW, Munger K, Rustgi AK, Opitz OG, Suliman Y, et al. Cell cycle dysregulation in oral cancer. Citical Rev Oral Biol Med 2002;13(1):51–61.

Choudhary A, Kesarwani P, Gaikwad P, Hiremath S, Gupta R, Koppula SK. Expression of cyclin D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with histological differentiation: An immunohistochemical study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2016;28(2):140–4.

Nazar M, Naz I, Mahmood MK, Hashmi SN. Immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in primary and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020;21(1):37–41.

Shenoi R, Devrukhkar V, Chaudhuri, Sharma BK, Sapre SB, Chikhale A. Demographic and clinical profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A retrospective study. Indian J Cancer 2012;49(1):21–6.

Satgunaseelan L, Allanson BM, Asher R, Reddy R, Low HTH, Veness M, et al. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue is rising in young non-smoking women: An international multi-institutional analysis. Oral Oncol 2020;110:104875.

Silva LP, Gonzaga AKG, Serpa MS, Nascimento GJF, Sobral APV. Immunohistochemical expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin-D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol 2017;29(4):377–82.

Ramos-García P, González-Moles MÁ, González-Ruiz L, Ayén Á, Ruiz-Ávila I, Bravo M, et al. Clinicopathological significance of tumor cyclin D1 expression in oral cancer. Arch Oral Biol 2019;99:177–82.

Saawarn S, Astekar M, Saawarn N, Dhakar N, Gomateshwar Sagari S. Cyclin D1 expression and its correlation with histopathological differentiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. ScientificWorldJournal 2012;2012:978217.

Lam KY, Ng IOL, Yuen APW, Kwong DLW, Wei W. Cyclin D1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: Clinicopathological relevance and correlation with p53 expression. J Oral Pathol Med 2000;29(4):167–72.