• Shifa Basharat Department of Histopathology, Rehman Medical Institute, Hayatabad, Peshawar-Pakistan
  • Ayesha Sajjad Department of Histopathology, Rehman Medical Institute, Hayatabad, Peshawar-Pakistan
  • Faryal Javaid Department of Histopathology, Rehman Medical Institute, Hayatabad, Peshawar-Pakistan
  • Maria Khan Department of Pathology, Pakistan Institute of Cardiology, Peshawar-Pakistan
  • Maria Tasneem Khattak Department of Histopathology, Rehman Medical Institute, Hayatabad, Peshawar-Pakistan
  • Iqbal Muhammad Khan Department of Histopathology, Rehman Medical Institute, Hayatabad, Peshawar-Pakistan



Urothelial Carcinoma, EGFR, Bladder Cancer, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor


Background:  Breast cancer treatment outcomes have markedly improved over the years with advancements in knowledge and treatment options. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been introduced recently to enhance post-operative patient well-being, attain enhanced recovery for patients who undergo major surgery, and therefore facilitate a reduction in hospital length of stay (LOS). These may also provide an additional advantage of decreasing healthcare costs while refining the standard of care and patient contentment. Methods: This Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was conducted in the Breast Unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, with a sample size of 60 (30 in each group). A consecutive non-probability sampling technique was used. Comparison was made between both groups for effectiveness, noted with regard to hospital stay, post-op pain, and complication rate. Results: The mean age of the patients in the ERAS group was 56.30±5.615 years, while the mean age in the non-ERAS group was 56.07±6.11 years. Wound infection was observed in 11 patients with ERAS (36.7%) compared to 12 (40.0%) without ERAS. Hospital stay was longer in the non-ERAS group compared to ERAS, while the post-op VAS mean difference was 1.267 with a p-value of 0.001. Conclusion: Evidence supports the effectiveness, affordability, and safety of ERAS protocols. They lead to a noticeable decrease in hospitalization duration and wound infection rates, resulting in reduced resource consumption and financial burdens. Nonetheless, achieving the mentioned benefits may necessitate strict adherence to the protocols, which could be challenging too.


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